Evaluation of a mental skills training program for musicians

Clark, T. and Williamon, A. (2011) Evaluation of a mental skills training program for musicians. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 23. pp. 342-359. ISSN 1041-3200 (print) 1533-1571 (online)


This study explored the effects of a 9-week music-specific mental skills training program delivered to students at a music conservatoire in England (n = 14). Pre- and post-testing involved a battery of questionnaires, public performances, and participant feedback. In comparison with a control group (n = 9), the experimental group demonstrated significant changes in their views toward practice activities and specific practicing behaviors, a significant increase in self-efficacy for performing, and an increase in imagery vividness. Comments from participants in the experimental group revealed greater levels of self-awareness, confidence, facilitative views toward and heightened control over anxiety, and healthier perspectives toward music-making.

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